A new combination of tissue engineering techniques provides a simple and effective method for building aligned cellular biomaterials. Self-alignment of Schwann cells within a tethered type-1 collagen matrix, followed by removal of interstitial fluid produces a stable tissue-like biomaterial that recreates the aligned cellular and extracellular matrix architecture associated with nerve grafts. Sheets of this engineered neural tissue supported and directed neuronal growth in a co-culture model, and initial in vivo tests showed that a device containing rods of rolled-up sheets could support neuronal growth during rat sciatic nerve repair (5 mm gap). Further testing of this device for repair of a critical-sized 15 mm gap showed that, at 8 weeks, engineered neural tissue had supported robust neuronal regeneration across the gap. This is, therefore, a useful new approach for generating anisotropic engineered tissues, and it can be used with Schwann cells to fabricate artificial neural tissue for peripheral nerve repair.
What are the benefits and harms of neural tissue management in the short term for treating nerve-related neck and arm pain?
Randomised controlled trial.
Sixty participants with non-traumatic nerve-related neck and unilateral arm pain were randomised to experimental (n = 40) or control (n = 20) groups.
Both groups were advised to continue usual activities. The experimental group also received education, manual therapy, and nerve gliding exercises in 4 treatments over 2 weeks.
Primary outcomes were participant-reported improvement and worsening on a Global Rating of Change scale. Secondary outcomes were neck pain, arm pain, the Neck Disability Index, the Patient-Specific Functional Scale, and adverse events related to treatment. Follow-up occurred 3–4 weeks after baseline.
Numbers needed to treat favoured the experimental intervention for participant-reported improvement (2.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 6.5), neck pain (3.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 10), arm pain (3.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 10), Neck Disability Index (4.3, 95% CI 2.4 to 18.2), and Patient-Specific Functional Scale (3.0, 95% CI 1.9 to 6.7). The prevalence of worsening in the experimental (13%) and control (20%) groups were not different (RD –7%, 95% CI –28 to 13). Adverse events had minimal impact on daily activities and did not reduce the chance of improving with the experimental intervention (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.84).
These results enable physiotherapists to inform patients that neural tissue management provides immediate clinically relevant benefits beyond advice to remain active with no evidence of harmful effects.