Teaching Methods Bibliography

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Bibliography for teachers

  • Language teaching: online, books, articles.
  • Language learning strategies: online, books.
  • Second language acquisition.

Language teaching

The following texts are available for purchase at low cost at www.vicbooks.co.nz under the heading VUW SLALS Occasional Publications. They can be ordered online at that site and paid for by credit card. This is the preferred way of ordering.

  • Cotterall, S. and Hoffmann A. (1998). How to Learn Another Language. VUW Language Learning Centre.
  • Lewis, M. (1995). Learning to be a Language Teacher. ELI Occasional Publications No. 15.
  • Nation, I. S. P. (2000). Creating, Adapting and Using Language Teaching Techniques. ELI Occasional Publications No. 20.
  • Nation, I. S. P. (1989). Language Teaching Techniques. ELI Occasional Publications No. 2.
  • Nation, I. S. P. (1996). Language Curriculum Design. ELI Occasional Publications No. 16.
  • Nation, I. S. P. & Thomas, G. I. (1988). Communication Activities. ELI Occasional Publications No. 13.


  • Cantoni, G. P. (1999). Using TPR-Storytelling to Develop Fluency and Literacy in Native American Languages. [Chapter 5], in Reyner, J., Cantoni, G., St. Clair, R. N., and Yazzie, E. P. (Eds). (1999). Revitalizing Indigenous Languages. (pp. 53–58). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.
  • Dave’s ESL Café Idea Cookbook contains lots of practical ideas submitted by teachers that can be adapted to teach Māori.
  • English Teaching Forum is a quarterly journal published by the US Department of State for teachers of English as a foreign or second language. It has been free to access online since 1993.
  • EnglishClub.com: ESL Teachers Lounge has links to lots of practical materials for ESL teaching that can be adapted.
  • Hinton, L. (2003). How to teach when the teacher isn’t fluent. In Reyhner, J., Trujillo, O. V., Carrasco, R. L., and Lockard, L. (Eds). (2003). Nurturing Native Languages. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University. American article about teaching Native American languages.
  • The Internet TESL Journal, for teachers of English as a Second Language, publishes online short, accessible full-text articles on the teaching of English online. The principles, ideas and tasks described in the journal articles can be adapted for use in Māori language classes.
  • Jacobs, G. & Small, J. (2003). Combining Dictogloss and Cooperative Learning to Promote Language Learning. The Reading Matrix 3, 1.
  • Reyhner, J., Trujillo, O. V., Carrasco, R. L., & Lockard, L. (Eds). (2003). Dos and Don’ts in Language Teaching. In Nurturing Native Languages. Northern Arizona University. Written for teachers of Navajo (a Native American Language).
  • TEFL.net has links for articles about teaching ESL. The general principles can be adapted for use in teaching Māori.
  • TEFL.net: ESL Worksheet Generator has forms where you can input words (for example in Māori, but unfortunately without macrons which would have to be added manually) to create matching or sorting worksheets for vocabulary study.


  • Fernandez-Toro, M. & Jones, F. R. (2001). DIY techniques for language learners. London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research. Contains some photocopiable pages.
  • Gibbons, P. (1991). Learning to Learn in a Second Language. Newtown, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association.
  • Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • New Zealand Department of Education. (1988). New voices: second language learning and teaching: a handbook for primary teachers. Wellington, NZ: Department of Education. Contains some practical suggestions on teaching techniques, with an ESL focus.
  • Wajnryb, R. (1990). Resource Books for Teachers: Grammar Dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


  • Franken, M. (1987). Self-questioning scales for improving academic writing. Guidelines 9, 1:1–8.
  • Johns, T. & Davies, F. (1983). Text as a vehicle for information: the classroom use of written texts in teaching reading in a foreign language. Reading in a Foreign Language 1, 1:1–19.
  • Long, M. H. & Porter, P. A. (1985). Group work, interlanguage talk, and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly 19, 2:207–228.
  • Maurice, K. (1983). The fluency workshop. TESOL Newsletter, 17, 4:29.
  • McComish, J. (1982). Listening to pictures. Modern English Teacher 10, 2:4–8.
  • Nation, I. S. P. (1989). Improving speaking fluency. System, 17 (3), 377–384.
  • Nation, I. S. P. & Thomas, G. I. (1979). Communication through the ordering exercise. Guidelines 1:68–75.
  • Nation, I. S. P. (1978). ‘What is it?’: a multipurpose language teaching technique. English Teaching Forum 16, 3: 20–23,32.
  • Palmer, D. M. (1982). Information Transfer for Listening and Reading. English Teaching Forum 20, 1:29–33.
    This article contains a large number of useful and practical suggestions, in the ESL context.
  • Simcock, M. (1993). Developing Productive Vocabulary Using the “Ask And Answer” Technique. Guidelines, 15, 2:1–7.
  • Wajnryb, R. (1988). The Dictogloss Method of Language Teaching: A text-based, communicative approach to grammar. English Teaching Forum 26, 3:35–38.

Language learning strategies


  • Centre for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota, Styles- and Strategies-Based Instruction (SSBI). General instructions on teaching language learning strategies – this would need to be adapted for younger students.
  • Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language Learning Strategy Instruction: Current Issues and Research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112–130. (This page is for issue 25 of the journal. Scroll down to find Chamot’s article.)
  • Cohen, A. D., Paige, R. M, Kappler, B., Demmessie, M., Weaver, S. J., Chi, J. C., & Lassegard, J. P. (2003). Does the ‘Good Language Learner’ Exist?. In Maximizing Study Abroad: A Language Instructors’ Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use. CARLA Working Paper Series, University of Minnesota.
  • Institut Teknologi Bandung Tips (strategies) for learning English from an Indonesian language school website.
  • National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington, DC. Motivating Learners: Achieving Success with Learning Strategies.
  • Oxford, R. (2003). Language Learning Styles And Strategies: An Overview.
  • Reyhner, J. (1999). Some Basics of Indigenous Language Revitalization. Introduction by Reyner, J., Cantoni, G., St. Clair, R. N., & Yazzie, E. P. (Eds). Revitalizing Indigenous Languages. (pp. v–xx). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern. This includes “Eight Points of Language Learning” (Strategies).


  • Cotterall, S. & Reinders, H. (2004). Teaching learner strategies. RELC: Singapore. (Available from: Library And Information Centre, SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, 30 Orange Grove, Singapore 258352, Republic of Singapore, Fax: 65-6734-2753, email:library@relc.org.sg)
  • Ellis, G. & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: a course in learner training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Lewis, M. (1999). How to Study Foreign Languages. Hampshire & London, UK: MacMillan. Part I: What is Involved in Learning a Language. Part II: Strategies for Language Acquisition. This book is aimed at adult learners studying at tertiary level.
  • Oxford, R. (Ed.) (1996). Language learning strategies around the world: cross-cultural perspectives. Honolulu: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
  • Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York, USA: Newbury House. A classic, very detailed book. Page 221 describes an example of strategy training for learning English in a primary school class in Denmark.
  • Rubin, J. & Thompson, I. (1994). How to be a More Successful Language Learner. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Willing, K. (1989). Teaching how to learn: learning strategies in ESL. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University. Two volumes: a teachers guide and a book of activity worksheets which could easily be adapted for Māori.

Second language acquisition

See also

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Below are publications that we think are worthy for research on learning and teaching:

On this page:

I. Course Design

Course and Assignment Design

Course Design Tip-Sheet (Harvard University, Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning).
Multiple questions designed to take you through the process of planning a course and syllabus.

"Designing and Teaching a Course," Speaking of Teaching, Stanford University Newsletter on Teaching, Winter 1998. PDF/Adobe Acrobat.
A discussion of conceptualizing, organizing, and teaching a course. Includes such topics as considering the audience, setting objectives, determining course format, and evaluating learning.

Course Preparation (Ohio State University)
A thorough presentation of all elements of course design from initial planning stages through classroom practices for the first days of class.

"Integrated Course Design," L. Dee Fink, Director, Instructional Development Program,University of Oklahoma. (IDEA Paper #42, March 2005). 
This article presents a rationale and thorough description of L. Dee Fink's model of integrated course design.

Designing Effective and Innovative Courses,” Barbara J. Tewksbury (Hamilton College) and R. Heather Macdonald (College of William and Mary).
This is an online course design tutorial for individual faculty members interested in designing or redesigning a course. The focus is on geoscience, but the process used is generic enough to design courses in all disciplines.

"Structuring Assignments for Success," Deborah DeZure, Michigan State University (In Whys and Ways of Teaching, Eastern Michigan University, Faculty Center for Instructional Excellence, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb. 1999).
This article discusses key issues in structuring successful assignments, such as using assignment packets, identifying necessary skills and assuring that students have them, and establishing criteria for evaluation. Includes sample evaluation forms and a worksheet for structuring assignments.

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Curriculum Design

"Designing a College Curriculum," Lion F. Gardiner, Rutgers University. The National Academy for Academic Leadership, 2005.
Discusses six principles emerging from the literature on curriculum design and the importance of defining curricular outcomes as a basis for design, implementation and assessment.

"Curriculum Review," Robert M. Diamond, The National Academy, and Lion F. Gardiner, Rutgers University. The National Academy for Academic Leadership, 2005. Contains questions to ask when reviewing curricula, from mission statement, goals, and objectives to monitoring and producing learning. Also lists resources for further learning.

Concept Mapping and Curriculum(The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Teaching Resource Center).
Uses concept maps as planning devices for curriculum development. Lists other readings and online resources for concept mapping and curriculum design.

Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe: A Summary
A summary of the "backwards design" model for instructional development, a curriculum design approach that begins with the desired end results and works backwards through the curriculum design process to achieve them.

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Learning Communities

Learning Communities: National Learning Commons (Washington Center for Improving the Quality of Undergraduate Education, Evergreen State University).
A comprehensive site on Learning Communities, set up to "serve as a national resource for curricular learning community work". Contains links to publications from their national monograph series and online resources for starting, maintaining, and assessing learning communities. Includes a searchable directory of national learning community projects and a moderated listserv.

"Participation in Living-Learning Programs at the University of Michigan: Benefits for Students and Faculty," Karen Kurotsuchi Inkelas (CRLT Occasional Paper #15, 2000, University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching). 
Describes U of M's seven different living-learning programs and their benefits for students and faculty.

Michigan Learning Communities(University of Michigan, Ann Arbor).
An overview for students of U of M's learning communities with answers to FAQs and a match-up tool for students to see which learning community is the best fit.

Learning Communities at Syracuse University
Description of residential and non-residential learning communities at Syracuse U.

Learning Communities at Seattle University
Describes Seattle's program for freshman learning communities and the themes available for students to choose from, including "theme floors" in the residence halls.

University of Nebraska at Lincoln Learning Communities
The handbook used at UNL to form, maintain, and dissolve a learning community. Includes a brief history of the learning communities initiative at UNL.

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Syllabus Design

"New Approaches to Syllabus Design" by Deborah DeZure, Michigan State University (In Whys and Ways of Teaching, Eastern Michigan University, Faculty Center for Instructional Excellence, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 1998).
Discusses the balancing act between a specific, informative syllabus and one that overwhelms students. Offers tips and examples plus a comprehensive worksheet from which instructors may draw relevant items reflecting their priorities and expectations for the course.

Syllabus Tutorial (University of Minnesota Center for Teaching and Learning Services).
An in depth tutorial on all aspects of syllabus and course design, including multiple examples of each element in a syllabus. Open the link to World Lecture Hall for examples of syllabi from many disciplines and courses.

Syllabus Template(Cornell University Center for Learning and Teaching).
Contains a template for syllabus construction based on "recommended best practices for syllabus construction." This site also contains information on course planning, design, and evaluation.

Designing a Course Syllabus: A Self-Guiding Tour (Georgia Southern University Center for Excellence in Teaching).
Links to guidelines, checklists, tips, examples, and a template for designing a “Learning Centered Syllabus.”

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II. Teaching with Technology

Assessing Online Resources

The Good, the Bad, & the Ugly, or Why It’s a Good Idea to Evaluate Web Sources,” Susan E. Beck (New Mexico State University Library).
Criteria, examples (good, bad, and ugly), suggestions for instructors planning Internet assignments, and a bibliography of online sites and publications with further information.

ICYouSee: T is for Thinking: A Guide to Critical Thinking About What You See on the Web” John R. Henderson (Ithaca College Library).
Detailed guidelines for evaluating web pages, a “pop quiz” comparing two web sites, and an Internet assignment designed to increase awareness of the need to assess sources and develop Internet assessment skills.

Thinking Critically about Discipline-Based World Wide Web Resources,” Esther Grassian (University of California, Los Angeles College Library).
Additional points to consider when evaluating sites for subject disciplines.

Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply and Questions to Ask (University of California, Berkeley Library).
Offers a detailed tutorial on techniques for Web evaluation, with many ideas for ways to check on the credibility of the resource.

Librarians' Internet Index: Websites You Can Trust (LII is supported by the U.S. Institute of Museum and Library Services).
Extensive annotated links to trustworthy web sites organized by broad areas of interest and specific disciplines.

Evaluating Information Found on the Internet,” Elizabeth E. Kirk (Johns Hopkins University, The Sheridan Libraries).
Covers many guidelines for evaluating sources, with especially valuable information on assessing point of view or bias, and methods for distinguishing propaganda, misinformation, and disinformation.

Assessing the Credibility of Online Sources (St. Cloud State University, LEO: Literacy Education Online).
Contains criteria for assessing online sources: authorship, publisher, currency, perspectives, coverage, and accuracy or verifiability.

Transcriptions: Evaluating and Citing Online Resources (University of California Santa Barbara, Department of English).
Offers checklists for evaluating and citing online materials. Includes links to evaluation exercises, examples of where to look on a website for citation information, and citation examples.

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Developing the Course Website

An Introduction to Website Development for Course Webpages at Michigan State University,” Sharon Vennix (Michigan State University). Adobe Acrobat/PDF.
Detailed guidelines for designing a course website using FrontPage 2000.

Integrating Instructional Technology Into Your Courses

Instructional Technology (University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching).
Scroll down to “Tips and Examples of Teaching with Technology” for links to sites that provide examples of University of Michigan faculty using instructional technology, tips, a model, and additional resources.

Technology for Courses in the Sciences:
Learning Through Technology, LT2, (University of Wisconsin, Madison).
This site was designed for postsecondary instructors of Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology to provide information on using technology to enhance learning in these fields. Includes descriptions of technology in use, case studies, and assessment materials.

e-Learning Centre(United Kingdom).
A comprehensive site offering information and services on e-learning. “Library” contains links to articles, papers, research reports, and resource collections; “Showcase” provides examples of online courses and projects; “Products and Services” provides links to e-learning tools, systems, and other resources.

Technology in Teaching and Learning (Center for Learning and Teaching, Edith Cowan University, Australia).
Provides a searchable database of over 2000 selected sites, articles, and documents dealing with technology in teaching and learning. Includes case studies of effective online teaching and information on using technology in campus-based, hybrid, and online courses.

The TLT Group: Teaching, Learning, and Technology.
Provides information on many aspects of using technology for teaching and learning. Some materials and services require a subscription, but much online information is free. See especially the Free Resources section and TLT-SWG. Includes introductory information on teaching with blogs, wikis, podcasts, etc.; assessment materials; discussion groups; and much more.

Active Learning with Powerpoint (University of Minnesota, Center for Teaching and Learning Services).
An online tutorial on using Powerpoint more effectively in the classroom: for active learning, active lecturing, assessment, and educational games. Includes five short videos discussing different ways to use Powerpoint to support learning.

A Flexible Alternative to PowerPoint,” Richard Olivo (Harvard University, Derek Bok Center).
Describes the use of a Web browser for teaching, offering guidelines for creating presentation pages and multiple links.
Link: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/notPPT.html

Using Online Technology to Break Classroom Boundaries. Speaking of Teaching, Stanford University Newsletter on Teaching, Vol. 8, No. 1, Fall 1996.
Ways to integrate technology into on-campus courses to extend communication beyond the classroom: email, course web pages, electronic discussions, mailing lists, Usenet Newsgroups, and class bulletin boards.

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Online Teaching

Teach Online (Michigan State University, Virtual University Design and Technology Group).
An extensive collection of resources for fully online and hybrid instruction. Includes materials for course design, pedagogy and techniques, assessment, and links to other sites that offer information on many aspects of online instruction.

Virtual University Design and Technology (vuDAT) at Michigan State University.
This site is designed to help faculty at MSU use technology to enhance teaching and learning. Contains a variety of online resources, examples, and tools. Includes self-paced tutorials for using ANGEL, material on pedagogy and techniques for fully online or hybrid courses, and links to a library of resource documents for faculty and their students.

Technology in Teaching and Learning (Center for Learning and Teaching, Edith Cowan University, Australia).
Provides a searchable database of over 2000 selected sites, articles, and documents dealing with technology in teaching and learning. Includes case studies of effective online teaching and information on using technology in campus-based, hybrid, and online courses.

Illinois Online Network: Online Education Resources (University of Illinois).
Provides an extensive set of resources on such topics as instructional design, assessment/evaluation, pedagogy, communication, and many other materials useful for online course developers. Also offers fee-based online courses for faculty on online teaching.

The TLT Group: Teaching, Learning, and Technology.
This site offers materials and services on using technology in teaching. Some resources are free, while others require a fee or university subscription.

Seven Principles of Effective Teaching: A Practical Lens for Evaluating Online Courses,” Charles Graham et al. From the Technology Source Archives, March/April 2001 (University of North Carolina).
Applies the “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education” (Chickering and Gamson, 1987) to four online courses and develops guidelines for more effective online instruction.

Rubric for Online Instruction (California State University, Chico, Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching).
This site is designed to promote high quality online instruction. Includes a rubric for assessing an online course, design tips for online learning, and examples of courses in many disciplines that received awards for Exemplary Online Instruction.

Principles of Online Design Checklist (Florida Gulf Coast University, Faculty Development and Support Services).
Provides a checklist to assess online courses with links to explanatory material and examples for each instructional design principle.

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Using the Internet for Instruction

Putting the Learning Back into Learning Technology,” Barry McMullin. (Dublin City University). In Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching, Eds. Geraldine O’Neill, Sarah Moore, and Barry McMullin, AISHE, 2005.
This article makes a case for enhancing substantive learning and social constructionist approaches through the use of such Internet resources as open content, wikis, blogs, and moodle software. Offers detailed descriptions of each and applications to learning.

Active Learning on the Web,” Bernie Dodge (San Diego State University).
Ways to use the Internet for active learning, with examples from several disciplines.

The WebQuest Page, Bernie Dodge (San Diego State University).
A comprehensive site for using the WebQuest model to teach with the web. Contains an overview and introduction, guidelines, activities, examples, templates, and much more. Although this site is geared for K-12 teachers, the ideas are applicable at the postsecondary level.

WebQuest Evaluation and Use, Annette Lamb (eduScapes).
More on WebQuests: evaluation materials, including rubrics, and examples from PreK-3 through college and university.

The WebQuest Goes to College,” Deanya Lattimore (Syracuse University).
Presents an argument for and the challenges of designing WebQuests for college and university students. Links to the Literacy WebQuest she designed and other WebQuests at the secondary and postsecondary level.

Wide Open Spaces: Wikis, Ready or Not,” Brian Lamb (University of British Columbia). EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 39, No. 5 (September/October 2004).
All you ever wanted to know about wikis, what they are, their benefits and challenges, their use in postsecondary education, and links to additional information on wikis.

Exploring the Use of Blogs as Learning Spaces in Higher Education,” Jeremy B. Williams (Universitas 21 Global) and Joanne Jacobs (Queensland University of Technology). Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2004.
Click on “overview and literature survey” for a PDF file of this article, which reviews the literature on blogs and explores their potential uses in higher education. Gives examples of a Weblog at Harvard Law School and an MBA blog at Queensland. Contains links to many online references and resources on blogs.

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III. Learners and Learning

Learning Styles/Teaching Styles/Multiple Intelligences

"Student Learning Styles and Their Implications for Teaching," Susan M. Montgomery and Linda N. Groat. (CRLT Occasional Paper #10, 1998, University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching).
This article includes a rationale for understanding student learning styles, covers several learning models, and discusses the ways in which this knowledge can be used to enhance teaching and learning.

Teaching With Style by Anthony F. Grasha and Laurie Richlin. Alliance Publishers, 1996. PDF/Adobe Acrobat.
A complete copy of Grasha's book on teaching and learning at the college level.

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Millennial Learners

Is It Age or IT: First Steps Toward Understanding the Net Generation,” Diana Oblinger (EDUCAUSE) and James Oblinger (North Carolina State University).
This article describes the characteristics of the Net Generation, especially their ease with the new technologies, and describes the way they deal with new information. Suggests implications for colleges and universities as the Net Generation and increasing numbers of non-traditional students enter the classroom.

"The Millennial Learner: Challenges and Opportunities," Saundra Y. McGuire (Louisiana State University).
A PowerPoint slide presentation that describes and defines Millennial Learners and offers teaching strategies that more fully meet their needs than traditional classroom approaches. Presents study skills that will help these students learn more effectively.

"The Next Generation Learner," Diana Oblinger (EDUCAUSE).
Follow the directions at this Educause site to link to this audio presentation on Millennial Learners.

Beloit College Mindset List.
Starting with the Class of 2002, Beloit College has published this annual list of the "mindset" of the entering freshman class: What kind of world were they born into? What have they always known? What have they never known? Click on this link to access each year's list, including the present year.

Educating the Net Generation,” an EDUCAUSE e-book.
This online collection of essays explores the “aptitudes, attitudes, expectations, and learning styles” of the Net Generation and recommends approaches to educating them effectively. Can be read online or downloaded as PDF files.

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Motivating Students

"Student Goal Orientation, Motivation, and Learning," Marilla D. Svinicki, University of Texas-Austin. (IDEA Paper #4, February 2005). PDF/Adobe Acrobat
This paper discusses current theory and research into student motivation and describes instructional methods that either facilitate or impede learning. Offers suggestions for improving student motivation.

"Capturing and Directing the Motivation to Learn," from Speaking of Teaching, the Stanford University Newsletter on Teaching, Vol. 10, No. 1, Fall 1998.
Research into student motivation and strategies for "incorporating methods of motivation into courses."

Motivating Students' Best Work (University of California, Berkeley).
Ways to identify the knowledge and skills students bring to class and methods for helping them succeed.

Motivating Your Students (Princeton University, The McGraw Center for Enhancing Teaching and Learning).
Part One: Methods for motivating students because they value what they are learning.
Part Two: Methods for motivating students because they believe they can learn new material and succeed in the course.

"Getting Students to Read: Fourteen Tips," Eric H. Hobson, Georgia Southern University (IDEA Paper #40, July 2004).
Ways to motivate students to do the course reading and methods to assist them in learning from it.

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Teaching Students Study Skills/How to Learn

Study Guides & Strategies (University of Illinois at Chicago, Academic Center for Excellence).
An inclusive site for students that covers time management, studying, learning through lectures and reading, taking exams, writing, and studying for particular courses.

Study Guides and Strategies maintained by Joseph F. Landsberger.
Student guides for many aspects of studying and learning.

"Getting Students to Read: Fourteen Tips," Eric H. Hobson, Georgia Southern University (IDEA Paper #40, July 2004).
Ways to motivate students to do the course reading and methods to assist them in learning from it.

"Research on Student Notetaking: Implications for Faculty and Graduate Student Instructors," Deborah DeZure, Matthew Kaplan, Martha Deerman. (CRLT Occasional Paper #16, 2001, University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching).
This article reviews research on notetaking and students' review of their notes; includes lecture strategies that support effective notetaking and ways to support students with disabilities. Provides a handout for students: Student Guide to Effective Notetaking and Review.

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Theories of Learning/How People Learn

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition (2000). John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking, eds. National Research Council.
A complete online copy of this well-respected book that summarizes current cognitive learning theory and its implications for education today and in the future.

Learning Theory, Mark K. Smith, the encyclopedia of informal education (infed).
Discusses learning as product and process and surveys some common models of how people learn: behaviourist, cognitivist, humanist, social and situational.

Theories of Learning, Lee Dunn (Oxford Brookes University, Wheatley Campus, Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development).
Gives concise summaries of a variety of theories of learning "that can be applied in educational contexts."

Learning Theories Knowledgebase, May 2007.
A knowledge base and webliography of theories and models of learning. Covers a wide range of theories organized into sub-categories, with clear and concise descriptions of each plus opportunities to post a response, offer suggestions, or engage in discussion.

Constructivism, Martin Ryder (University of Colorado at Denver).
A comprehensive site on constructivism with many links to websites and articles on all the major figures in the development of this approach to teaching and learning.

"Bloom et al.'s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain," W. Huitt, Educational Psychology Interactive (Valdosta State University).
An overview of Bloom's Taxonomy of learning behaviors.

Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Based on Bloom's Taxonomy (2001 St. Edward's University Center for Teaching Excellence).
A wheel that aligns Bloom's Taxonomy with many aspects of teaching and learning.

David A. Kolb on experiential learning, Mark K. Smith (infed).
A description and visual model of Kolb's experiential learning cycle. Includes a critique of Kolb's model, references, and links.

"Ripples on a Pond Model," Phil Race, UK faculty developer.
Click on "Ripples Model (1107)" for a powerpoint of 25 slides explaining Race's model of five factors for successful learning.

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IV. Student Growth: Cognitive, Moral, and Emotional Development

Cognitive Development

Perry Network and Center for the Study of Intellectual Development, William S. Moore,Coordinator.
This is a website dedicated to Perry's Model of intellectual development, its assessment, and research support. Click on "Overview of Perry Scheme" for a complete description of Perry's model of cognitive and affective growth during the college years.

Summary of Women's Ways of Knowing, Belenky et al. Basic Books 1986 (Ferris State University, Center for Teaching, Learning, and Faculty Development).
A concise summary of the five stages of knowing from Belenky et al.'s book.

"Models of Cognitive Development: Piaget and Perry," Chapter 14 from Teaching Engineering, Phillip C. Wankat and Frank S. Oreovicz, McGraw-Hill, 1993.
This book chapter provides in depth descriptions of Piaget's and Perry's theories of cognitive development. The authors also include the contributions of Belenky, et al (1986) to a better understanding of different methods of knowing than those postulated by Piaget and Perry. Implications for Engineering Education could apply to many disciplines in higher education. The chapter concludes with activities and teaching methods that encourage cognitive growth.

Reflective Judgment, Patricia M. King (University of Michigan).
A website dedicated to the Reflective Judgement Model that describes the "development of reasoning from adolescence to adulthood." Contains a description of the model, instruments for assessing RJ, research, educational implications, and references.

"Strengthening Practice with Theory," Martha E. Casazza (National Louis University). From the Journal of Developmental Education, Vol 22, No 2, Winter 1998.
Using case studies of three college students, this article examines several theories of cognitive development and different ways of understanding what knowledge is. These theories are applied to the case studies and used to develop a framework for understanding cognitive growth.

"Fostering Cognitive Development in College Students - The Perry and Toulmin Models,” Dennis J. Battaglini and Randolph J. Schenkat. ERIC Digest, ED284272, 1987.
Compares two theories of cognitive growth and their classroom implications.

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Moral Development

"Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development", W.C. Crain. Chapter Seven from Theories of Development, Prentice-Hall, 1985.
Summarizes Kohlberg's work on moral development.

Carol Gilligan's "In a Different Voice", Chuck Huff (St. Olaf College).
Provides a summary of Gilligan's theory of stages of moral development for women and comparison to both Piaget and Kohlberg.

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Cognitive and Moral Development and Diversity

"Encountering Diversity on Campus and in the Classroom: Advancing Intellectual and Ethical Development", Lee Knefelkamp and Timothy David-Lang (Teachers College, Columbia University). Diversity Digest, Spring/Summer 2000.
This article presents evidence that students' levels of cognitive development influence their encounters with diversity in college courses and on campus. In designing diversity courses, faculty should be aware that students might not be intellectually and psychologically ready for this learning experience and sequence these encounters to enhance reflection and cognitive growth.

"Higher Education and Reducing Prejudice: Research on Cognitive Capabilities Underlying Tolerance", Victoria L. Guthrie (Ohio University), Patricia M. King and Carolyn J. Palmer (Bowling Green University). Diversity Digest, Spring/Summer 2000.
The authors explore the relationship between tolerance for diversity and intellectual level. They review research in this area and describe their own research using the Reflective Judgment Model, offering evidence that tolerance is related to a student's level of intellectual development and reflective judgment.

"New Arguments for Diversifying the Curriculum: Advancing Students' Cognitive Development", Hans Herbert Kogler (University of North Florida). In Diversity Digest, Summer 1999.
Argues that multicultural education advances students' cognitive capabilities as well as enhancing their moral and social development.

"Charting Cognitive and Moral Development in Diversity Classes", Maurianne Adams (University of Massachusetts, Amherst). Diversity Digest, Fall/Winter 2002.
Describes research conducted in the author's undergraduate course on social diversity and social justice in which students demonstrated growth toward multiplistic thinking by the end of the course.

"Diversity and Higher Education: Theory and Impact on Educational Outcomes", Patricia Gurin, Eric L. Dey, Sylvia Hurtado, Gerald Gurin (University of Michigan). Harvard Educational Review, Vol.72, No. 3, Fall 2002.
Reviews the theoretical foundations and educational research that demonstrate the positive effect of a diverse student population on students’ cognitive and social growth.

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Emotional Development

Emotional Intelligence(Funderstanding).
Summarizes Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional intelligence, its relationship to learning, and its impact on a person’s life.

Emotional Intelligence Information, John D. Mayer.
A site devoted to "communicating scientific information about emotional intelligence." Defines and describes it, offers articles, EI assessment measures, and other resources.

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Dealing with Students in Crisis

"Dealing with Students in Crisis" (New York City College of Technology). 
This handbook is designed to help faculty recognize students at risk of academic failure due to emotional crises and provide appropriate interventions. Crisises discussed range from troubling personal issues to suicidal, violent, or threatening students.

Tips on Recognizing and Dealing with Students in Emotional Distress (Buffalo State College).
Tips for recognizing troubled students and suggestions for helping them.

Identifying and Dealing with Troubled or Disruptive Students(University of Florida Center for Excellence in Teaching).
Offers ways to deal with mildly, moderately, or severely troubled students. Includes guidelines for talking with a student in distress.

Tips for Faculty and Staff in Dealing with Students in Emotional Distress (California State University at Chico).
Methods for dealing with a range of student behaviors from the anxious or dependent student to the suicidal or verbally aggressive student.

Assisting the Emotionally Distressed Student (California State University, Long Beach, Counseling and Psychological Services).
Additional methods for dealing appropriately with a broad range of troubling student behaviors.

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