- American Psychological Association’s Style of citing sources
- Usually used in social and behavioral sciences papers (such as psychology papers)
- Explained fully in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition.
(You can ask for this manual at the Front Desk for use in the Library.)
Download a printer-friendly version of this APA Citation Style Guide [PDF].
Table of Contents
A References List is the list of the sources you used to write your paper. Place this list at the end of your paper on its own page(s).
- Title your list References
- List your sources alphabetically by author.*
- Double-space your References List.
* How to Quickly Sort & Indent Citations in MS Word (PDF)
Indent the second and subsequent lines of each citation. Use a hanging indent to indent this way.
1. Highlight all of your citations.
2. Click on the bottom triangle (not the rectangle!) of the ruler near the top of the screen.
3. Drag the bottom triangle to the half-inch mark (see below):
OR, even quicker!
1. Highlight all of your citations.
2. Ctrl + Tab (the Control key and the Tab key together)
Basic Format for Books
Last name, First Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Edition) [if other than the 1st]. Place: Publisher.
Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2006).The miniature guide to the art of asking essential questions. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Miller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
DSM-5: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Essay or Chapter in an Edited Book (2 versions)
1) For essays published for the first time:
Essay Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Year). Essay title. In Editor’s First Initial Last Name (Ed.),Book title (pp. # - #). Place: Publisher.
Weinman, J. & Kleinfield, J. (2006). Do schools perpetuate a gender bias? In W. Traverner (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial issues in human sexuality (pp. 114-120). Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill Education.
2) For essays reprinted from another source (e.g., essays in an anthology or coursepack):
Essay Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Year of book). Essay title as the book names it, not as the original source names it. In Editor’s First Initial Last Name (Ed.),Book title (pp. # - #). Place: Publisher. (Reprinted fromName of Journal, Year, Volume#, page#-page#)
Milgram, S. (2007). The perils of obedience. In W. F. Schulz (Ed.), The phenomenon of torture: Readings and commentary (pp. 110-119). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Reprinted from Harper’s, December 6, 1973, 246, 62-66, 75-77)
Special Note About In-Text Citations for Reprinted Essays:
Cite both years in your in-text citations, like this:
(Last Name, newest year/oldest year)
Book, Corporate Author
The publisher is listed as "Author."
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
eBook from eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost)
Author's Last name. First Initial. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from home_page_URL
Brock, J., & Arciuli, J. (2014). Communication in autism. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
eBook on a Kindle
Author's Last name. First Initial. (Year). Book title. [e-reader device name]. Retrieved from home_page_URL
Silberman, S. (2015). Neurotribes: The legacy of autism and the future of neurodiversity. [Kindle ebook]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
Audiobook on CD:
Author's Last name. First Initial. (Year). Book title [Format]. Place: Publisher.
Eide, B. E. & Eide, F. F. (2011). The dyslexic advantage: Unlocking the hidden potential of the dyslexic brain [CD audiobook]. Old Saybrook, CT: Tantor Audio.
Digital Audiobook (e.g., Audible)
Author's Last name. First Initial. (Year). Book title [Format]. Retrieved from home_page_URL
Eide, B. E. & Eide, F. F. (2011). The dyslexic advantage: Unlocking the hidden potential of the dyslexic brain [Audible audiobook]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Year). Article Title. InEncyclopedia title. (Vol. #, pp.# - #). Place: Publisher.
- (If no author is given for the entry, place the title in the author position.)
- (You do not need to include an edition statement if the encyclopedia is a first edition.)
Perez, Jr., L. (2005). Cuba. In The world book encyclopedia. (Vol. 4, pp. 1168-1179). Chicago: World Book.
What’s the difference between magazines and journals?
- glossy cover and pages
- includes advertisements
- many photos and graphics
- easier to read
- catchy, even sensational article titles
- of general interest (Time)
- trade or technical interest (PC World)
- business interest (Forbes),
- or political interest (The Nation)
Journals (some generalizations)
- dull cover and pages
- few or no advertisements
- few or no photos and graphics
- harder to read
- more jargon/technical terms
- assumes the reader is a member of the journal's profession or discipline
- informative article titles of scholarly interest for members of a specific professional field
Basic Format for Periodical Articles
Last name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number*), Page numbers, inclusive (the page numbers of the entire article).
*You only need the issue number for journals in which each issue is paged separately.
Magazine Article, Monthly
White, C. (2006, April). The spirit of disobedience. Atlantic, 312(1871), 31-40.
Magazine Article, Weekly
Tumulty, K. (2006, April 10). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.
Anonymous Author (Magazine or Journal)
Class distinctions. (2006, April). Psychology Today, 39(2), 21.
Journal Article, with All Issues for a Volume Paged Consecutively
Newman, J. L., Fuqua, D. R., Gray, E. A., & Simpson, D. B. (2006). Gender differences in the relationship of anger and depression in a clinical sample. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84, 157-161.
Journal Article, with Each Issue Paged Separately (Include Issue Number)
Knotts, H. G. & Haspel, M. (2006). The impact of gentrification on voter turnout. Social Science Quarterly, 87(1), 110-121.
Newspaper Article (use pp. for page numbers of newspaper articles)
Chavez, L. (2006, March 30). American dreams, foreign flags. The New York Times, pp. A25.
Newspaper Article, Anonymous Author
Religious leaders protest House immigration bill. (2006, April 11). The Keene Sentinel, pp. 2.
Articles from Online Databases
Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper Article from an Online Database
The 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association has simplified the process for citing articles from online databases.
Basic Format for an Online Database Article
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of database home page
Specific Example (from the Academic Search Premier database)
Denhart, H. (2008). Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 483-497. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com
A Note about APA Citations Created by Databases
Many databases provide APA-style citations for you.
Look for words like “Citation” or “Cite” near options to print and save.
Database-generated citations may have flaws:
- Most databases capitalize every word, even prepositions like "of" and even all the words in an article title.
- Sometimes citations are missing information, such as issue or page numbers.
Abstract from an Online Database
It's preferable to find, use, and cite the full article, but when that's not possible, APA does permit citing only the abstract (summary) of an article.
- Follow the appropriate citation format (journal, magazine, or newspaper).
- Then after the page numbers, add the following information:
1. The words “Abstract retrieved from”
2. The URL for the homepage of the article database
For example, an abstract from the database General OneFile has this URL:
Cite only the home page URL (the part ending in .com or .org):
Online Database Article Abstract: Basic Format
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Abstract retrieved from URL of database homepage
Online Database Article Abstract: Specific Example (from the Academic OneFile database)
Haddad, A. D. M., Umoh, G., Bhatia, V. & Robertson, M. M. (2009). Adults with Tourette's syndrome with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 10(4), 299-308. Abstract retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com
CQ Researcher Articles
Articles from the online version of the CQ Researcher are cited as if they are an online version of a magazine article. You can access the full citation of the article by simply clicking the Cite Now button at the top of the first page.
If you prefer to construct the citation on your own in 6th edition APA style, here’s how:
Basic Format for a CQ Researcher Article (Online version)
Last name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title.TheCQ Researcher, Volume number, Page numbers. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com
Annual Editions Articles
Articles from the Reference series Annual Editions are reprints of articles from magazines, newspapers or journals.
Therefore, your citation must show that you got the article from Annual Editions and that the article originally appeared elsewhere in a magazine, journal or newspaper. You treat these articles like the “Essays reprinted from another source (e.g. essays in an anthology or coursepack)” from page 4 of this guide.
Basic Format for an Annual Editions Article
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Article title. In Editor’s First Initial Last Name (Ed.), Annual Editions: Volume title (pp. # - #). Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill. (Reprinted from Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, pp. # - #, Year, Month Day)
Underwood, A. & Adler, J. (2006). Diet and genes. In D. Klimis-Zacas (Ed.), Annual Editions: Nutrition (pp. 63-65). Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill. (Reprinted from Newsweek, pp. 40-48, 2005, January 17)
Editor(s): Listed on the title page in the front of the Annual Editions volume.
Reprint info: Listed at the bottom of the first page of the article.
Special Note about In-Text Citations for Annual Editions Articles:
Cite both years in your in-text citations, like this:
(Last Name, newest year/oldest year)
(Underwood & Adler, 2006/2005)
Websites & Web Pages
To cite an entire website, just give its name and URL in the text of your paper. Don't cite it in the References List at the end.
If instead you use (i.e., quote or paraphrase from) many pages from a website, cite each web page separately.
LD Online is a great place to start for information on learning disabilities and ADHD (http://www.ldonline.org).
Basic Format for a Web Page
Author last name, First initial (if available). (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Title or description of page. Retrieved from URL (address of web page)
Basic Format for a Web Page, No Author
Title or description of page. (Year, Month Day web page was last updated). Retrieved from URL (address of web page)
Author: Look at the top and bottom of the page to see if an author is listed. If none is, then start the citation the page name, followed by the date.
Date: Look at the top and bottom of the page for a date. If none is listed, list the date as "(n.d.)."
Special formats: For information about how to cite specific types of web pages such as blog posts, tweets, and Facebook posts, visit this helpful page from the APA Style Blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html
Dyslexia and the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Dyslexia_and_the_DSM-5_%28Diagnostic_and_Statistical_Manual_of_Mental_Disorders%29
Technical & Research Reports
Author's last name, First Initials OR Department Responsible for the Report (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from URL (address of the report)
U.S. Department of Education (2014). Profile of undergraduate students: 2011-12: Web tables (NCES 2015-167). Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015167.pdf
Author's last name, First Initial [screen name]. (Year, month day of upload). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/xxxxxx
Greenland, B. [bryangreenland]. (2012, January 13). Funny library montage [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_a7OTE2nLg
YouTube Video, No Author
Author's name not listed? Then list the screen name instead of the author's name and without brackets:
MezonBiz. (2007, December 16). Test yourself: Stroop effect [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tpge6c3Ic4g
Motion Picture (Movie)
Producer’s Last Name, First Initial (Producer), & Director’s Last Name, First Initial (Director). (Year). Video title [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Name of Movie Studio.
Bregman, M. & Elfand, M. (Producers), & Lumet, S. (Director). (2006). Dog day afternoon [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Home Video.
Non-Fiction Video (e.g., Documentary)
Producer’s Last Name, First Initial (Producer). (Year). Video title [DVD/VHS].Available from URL of the publisher of the video
Harrison-Hansley, M. & Sussman, A. (Producers). (2005). Living with ADHD [DVD]. Available from http://www.films.com
Basic Format for an Electronic Image
Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrievedfrom URL (address of website)
Note: If you can only find the screen name of an author (such as a photographer on Flickr), that will do as the author's name.
If the screen name is all lowercase, keep the name lowercase in the in-text citation and the references list.
Electronic Image (No Author)
Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved from URL (address of website)
Electronic Image (No Author, No Title, No Date)
Many images found on the Web are of this category, but you should still look for this missing information: try clicking on the image, and/or looking at the bottom of the image.
[Format and subject of work]. Retrieved from URL (address of website)
Specific Image Examples
Japanese Geisha [Photograph]. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/10.htm
Kulbis, M. (Photographer). (2006). Men pray [Photograph], Retrieved from http://accuweather.ap.org/cgi-bin/aplaunch.pl
sinead-marie (Photographer). (2012). Dyslexia [Photograph], Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/cCrXHQ
[Untitled photograph of a baby chimpanzee]. Retrieved from http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jdtr/struc/chimp3.htm
Email & Other Personal Communications
Personal communications can include email, private letters, personal interviews, and telephone conversations.
Since they don't provide information that readers can find for themselves, they are not included in the references list.
- In the in-text citation, list the communicator's first initials and last name, the phrase "personal communications" and the exact date.
- Do not cite in the references list.
In-text citation examples
S. R. Narayan (personal communication, March 19, 2017)
(S. R. Narayan, personal communication, March 19, 2017)
Same Author, Different Works / Sources
- List in chronological order, oldest source first.
- If both sources are from the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title.
Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford Press.
How to Paraphrase:
- Cite only the last name of the author (or if a website, cite the author, organization, institution, or company responsible for the website).
- Cite the year of the source.
- Within a paragraph, the second (or third, etc.) time you cite a source, don’t list the date.
- Cite the page number for books and multipage articles (but not for websites). Note: Page numbers are technically optional for paraphrases, but you might as well use them. It helps your reader, and it can help you if you need to double-check your source during the revision process.
- Use the past tense to explain what an author did: (studied something; found something, etc.) or the present perfect tense: (has studied something; has found something, etc.).
Smith (2006) studied how racism affects biracial college students (p. 62).
In a recent study of racism, biracial college students reported receiving prejudice from both racial groups to which they belonged (Smith, 2006, p. 62).
Jones and Rogers (2006, p. 123) found that stress can adversely affect sleep.
Stress can adversely affect sleep (Jones & Rogers, 2006, p. 123)
Three to Five Authors
First mention of source:
Miller, Bender, and Schuh (2006, p. 56) hypothesized that student expectations prior to enrollment would strongly influence their experiences of college life.
In an experiment to examine the impact of expectations on the experiences of first-year college students, researchers compared institution characteristics and student background characteristics with expectations of campus activities and the campus environment (Miller, Bender, & Schuh, 2006, p. 52-53).
Second mention of source (Omit the year if this is the second mention within the same paragraph):
Miller et al. were surprised to find a low correlation between time spent preparing for class and gains in general education and intellectual skills (2006, p. 59).
Their experiment found little correlation between time spent preparing for class and gains in general education and intellectual skills (Miller et al., 2006, p. 59).
Web Pages: In-Text Citations
- the heading of the section or the title of the web page
- the date of the page
- the number of the paragraph following it
Web page title example
Twice as many women than men receive a diagnosis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (Anxiety Disorders Association of America, 2009, “Statistics and Facts about Anxiety Disorders,” para. 3).
Section heading example
In their online information booklet, Panic Disorder, a Real Illness, the National Institutes of Mental Health state that the disorder usually starts between the ages of 18 and 24 (2006, When Does Panic Disorder Start? section, para. 1).
NOTE: When section headings or web page titles are too lengthy to cite in full, shortening them is preferred. The original heading title for the above example was “When does panic disorder start and how long does it last?”
How to cite a source cited in your source
- You’ve read and you're citing Author A.
- Author A cites Author B.
- You haven’t read Author B, but you want to cite Author B.
Here’s what you do:
1. List Author A (who you read) in the References List. Don’t list Author B there.
2. In your text, use the following citation:
Author B’s study (as cited in Author A, Year) or (Author B, Year, as cited in Author A, Year)
Find, read, and cite Author B as its own source (the preferred option, according to APA).
How to quote a source directly:
- Cite only the last name of the author (or, if a website, cite the author’s last name, or the name of the organization, institution, or company responsible for the website).
- Cite the year of the source.
- Cite the page numbers (with a p. or pp.) after the date (but for websites, see box below).
- If your quote contains a quote, use single quotation marks (‘’) around the shorter quote.
Although there is some debate concerning the prevalence of the cluster of symptoms labeled ADHD, Barkley and Murphy (2006) maintain that “there is little doubt that the disorder is virtually universal among human populations” (p. 7).
Website/Web Page Quoting
List the heading of the section or the title of the web page and then the number of the paragraph following it.
Web page title example
For persons with dyspraxia, gross motor coordination difficulties can include “poor posture and fatigue” resulting from inadequate muscle tone (Dyspraxia Foundation, 2009, “Symptoms,” para. 2).
Section heading example
The National Center for Learning Disabilities (2006) estimates that “dyspraxia affects at least 2% of the general population to some degree and about 70% of those affected are male” (What is dyspraxia? section, para. 1).
NOTE: When section headings, web page, or online article titles are too lengthy to cite in full, shorten them.
Online Database Articles, Quoting Examples
Articles in PDF format
Quote like any article or book, because the original pagination is preserved.
Articles in HTML format
The pagination has changed from the original printed article.
List the heading of the section and then the number of the paragraph following it.
HTML article example
In one study of parents of children with newly diagnosed specific learning disabilities showed that "these parents regard five facets (leisur [leisure] > pfeel [positive feelings] > energy > esteem > sex) as important contributors to their overall [quality of life]" (McCutchan, Logan, & Biangardi-Orpe, 2009, Limitations and conclusion section, para. 2).
- When article titles or section headings are too lengthy to cite in full, shorten them.
- In any quote, brackets represents words that you and not the authors inserted, or words that you modified for clarity, or in the case of [...] words were omitted for brevity.
When your quote is longer than 40 words
- Start the quote on a new line.
- Indent the entire quote by 5 spaces (½ of an inch if you use the ruler in Microsoft Word—see box below for instructions).
- Don’t use quotation marks.
- Double-space the quote (just like the rest of the paper).
- Use brackets enclosing elipses […] to represent omitted text.
- If your quote contains a quote, use double quotation marks (“ ”) around the shorter quote.
- Place the last period before the in-text citation (the opposite of what you do for shorter quotes).
Example of a long quote
Elder and Paul (2006) explain the difference between absolutists and relativists:
Some people, dogmatic absolutists, try to reduce all questions to matters of fact. They think that every question has one and only one correct answer. Others, subjective relativists, try to reduce all questions to matters of subjective opinion. They think that no question has correct or incorrect answers but that all questions whatsoever are matters of opinion […] Neither absolutist nor relativist leaves room for what is crucial to success in human life: matters of reasoned judgment. (p. 10)
How to indent a long quote
- Place your cursor at the beginning of the quote.
- Click on the bottom rectangle on the ruler near the top of the screen.
- Drag the bottom rectangle to the half-inch mark (see below)
How to quote a source more than once within a paragraph
- The first time you quote a source in a paragraph, follow the examples above.
- The second and subsequent times you quote that source within the same paragraph, only include the page number in parentheses. (You don’t need the name and year.)
It can be helpful to sort questions into categories when analyzing virtually any issue. Elder and Paul (2006) offer three categories: “Questions of Procedure,” “Questions of Preference,” and “Questions of Judgment” (p. 9). Questions of Procedure are generally unarguable and call for fact or definition, such as “How many democratic administrations have there been in the U.S. since 1829?” or “What is a coalition government?” The answers to Questions of Preference are open-ended and as varied as individual values, such as “How would I live differently if I took the ideas of this author seriously?” (p. 37). Questions of Judgment require “reasoning, but with more than one arguable answer” or “the best answer within a range of possibilities” (p. 9). An example from the field of political science is: “Is democracy the best form of governance?” This latter category of questions is most challenging, as it calls for the intellectual virtues of dispositions of humility, courage, empathy, integrity, perseverance, confidence in reason, and autonomy (p. 43-44).
Need an example not listed here?
Go to the Front Desk and ask for The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition.
A library staff person would be happy to help you find your example.
What does a good thesis statement look like?
There is one big tip on writing a good essay almost every article on the web gives you. It’s to come up with a clear and specific thesis statement.
But how one does it? You need to understand what is the main idea of your paper and how to communicate it in a comprehensive and concise way. Here are some of the thesis statement examples to help you make this task less problematic.
Thesis statement formula
As you can see, there is no universal thesis statement formula as every type of a writing assignment requires a different approach. In some cases, you will have to include counterarguments, and in others presenting solely your point of view will suffice. Here are a couple of examples:
While there is a common belief that ……., a closer examination proves that …….
Despite the ……., the recent facts show that ……
The reason for is …… and as a result …….
- Endorsement of child labor by international companies should not be supported.
Consumers should not buy items from the countries that endorse child labor because this kind of financial approval encourages big corporations to increase the production, the exhaustion of a child’s body can lead to severe health problems, and the hard work deprives children of their childhood.
- The morality of atheists and theists.
Even though atheists do not have an instruction of good behavior provided by the superior beings, they are not less moral than theists. They have their own moral compass and laws established by society to differentiate good deeds from the bad ones.
- Testing drugs on animals is the sacrifice we have to make.
The greatest value we have is a human life. If testing a new drug on a cute little rabbit could result in saving your mother or father from a terminal illness, then this is the sacrifice we need to make. Animal testing can lead to our healthier future, less incurable diseases, and more saved lives.
- Getting a university diploma is necessary.
Even though there are some examples of successful people without a college degree, everybody should go through this stage of self-development. The years in college give you knowledge, improve your soft skills, and connect you with other bright people who can help you get to the top in the future.
- Personal information on the web should have a legislative basis.
Even though we can’t imagine our life without social media, we have to be careful about the information we provide as it can be used for research reasons. There should be specific laws about the availability of big data and who can use it because it will be easy to manipulate people’s minds, gather the personal information without permission and use it for someone’s benefits.
- Landing on the Moon is a fake.
Despite the presence of a documentary video of landing on the Moon, it should be recognized as the biggest fraud. The details of the video and the fact that we still have not made a come back there after more than 40 years indicate that it could not be filmed on the Moon surface.
- Parents monitoring their children internet use is the right thing.
While there is a lot of useful and educational information on the internet, parents should regulate the internet use of their children. Children get distracted, spend more time on harmful web sites, and avoid social interaction.
- Money as a motivation for good grades is an option.
The approach of encouraging the children to get good grades by paying them can be a model of the real world situation. If you work hard and get good results, you will get paid accordingly. This way of encouragement is acceptable and can be used by parents.
- The line between exaggeration and lies in advertising.
There are not enough regulatory norms to make the modern advertisement less deceiving. The line between exaggeration and lies is not clear and the products advertised turn often don’t meet the customers’ expectations. If we introduce more rigid rules to advertising, there will be less disappointed customers.
- Space missions should not be a priority.
We spend billions of dollars on developing the strategies of Mars colonization while there are millions of people suffering from famine here, on our planet. It would be more beneficial to spend more on saving people in Africa from starvation and water shortages than sending someone to a distant planet.
- Unfair salary rates of doctors.
In the world where human life is the biggest value, doctors should get the highest salary rates, not actors and singers. They save lives, deprive us of physical pain, and have to spend years of studying and practicing to be able to do that.
- Euthanasia should be legalized.
Euthanasia should be recognized as one of the possible ways of ending a person’s life. The right of life is given to every person and we are free to take decisions we consider to be right.
- Homeschooling is effective.
Homeschooling is an effective way of educating children as it gives an opportunity to focus on personal strength and weaknesses, make emphasis on the particular subjects a child has an interest in, and adapt the studying approach to the most convenient for a child.
- Diets are just waste of time.
Multiple cases show that all the diets have a short-term effect on the body. Diets are ineffective because people start gaining weight once they stop and the organism goes through an unnecessary stress.
- The production of cigarettes should decrease by 90%.
The production of cigarettes should decrease by 90% so that with time, the harmful habit could disappear. A significant decrease in the production of tobacco products will lead to the minimization of demand on it as the price will get higher, the supply will decrease and people will not be able to buy it.
- Reverse discrimination at the workplace is a problem.
The fear of being punished for the discrimination of ethnical minorities at the workplace leads to the discrimination of the rest of the population. There should be a law that balances out this inequality.
- Redistribution of money spent on the space programs is needed.
The government should not spend money on the search for new exoplanets as it has no practical value for people on Earth. Instead, they should focus on asteroid mining projects to be able to get the vital resources after they are all used on our planet and survive.
- Plastic surgeries should not be allowed to everyone.
Even though plastic surgeries are aesthetically justified, they do not solve the psychological problems of desire to change one’s appearance. They should be allowed only in severe cases because they give people the fake satisfaction, can cause an addiction, and support the objectification of one’s image.
- Video games advocating violence should be banned.
Video games featuring violent episodes should be banned as they lead to violence at schools, damage the mentality of minds, and create the perverted image of reality.
- Abortions should be legal.
The legalization of abortions should be legalized as women should have the freedom to make decisions regarding their bodies and there are cases when there could be no other solution to the problem.
- Endorsement of child labor by international companies should not be supported.
- Studying abroad.
Although the idea of studying abroad might sound costly, the experience one will get from the interaction with another culture and different approach to teaching is worth it.
- Marriage at a young age.
There is nothing good about getting married at a young age except for it being romantic. People’s personalities change dramatically between 20 and 30 years old and young marriages are almost never a good idea.
- Getting a degree.
Higher education is no longer a requirement for getting the dream job. Online short-term courses can give you the necessary theoretical information.
- Women choosing not to have children.
There is nothing scandalous about a woman who chooses not to have children and our society has to understand that. It is her time and body that are at stake but not someone’s beliefs.
- Modern art.
Modern art becomes more and more meaningless as almost every creative project has a goal of provoking negative emotions.
- National identity.
We will see more and more regions demanding independence in the upcoming years because the question of national identity has become extremely the top of the agenda in Europe.
There is an urgent need of educating people about AIDS as there are many countries even in Europe where the information about this disease is inaccurate and unspecific.
- Protecting animals.
Every civilized country should ban circuses that use animals for their shows. This kind of entertainment is not worth the sufferings those animals go through.
Becoming a vegetarian is a new stage of the human development as you stop being an animal and make a conscious choice of not eating meat for the sake of other animals just like you.
Choosing death instead of life is a selfish deed by which you take the joy of your life not from yourself but from the people who love you.
- Studying abroad.
- Plants in the developing countries.
International companies having their factories in the developing countries provide thousands of people with work and stable income. The question of ethics should not stand in the way of helping those people to survive.
- 6 hour work day
The U.S. should introduce a 6 hour work day for office workers to reduce sick-leave and increase the motivation.
- The importance of exams.
Exams are not an effective way of assessing students’ knowledge. There should be an alternative to measuring the abilities while exams will be banned.
- School uniforms.
School uniforms work perfectly for erasing the difference of families’ income levels and can always be individualized by the students to express their creativity.
- Space debris.
Space debris is a serious threat to our planet and there should be more information and publicity on the topic.
- Personal information.
The federal government should not have access to the personal information we state online and should not be able to use it.
- Food at school cafeterias
The food at school cafeterias is one of the main reason of children’s obesity in the U.S. the government should introduce legal regulations regarding this issue.
- Maternity leave
The period of paid maternity leave should increase up to 2 years. A woman should be able to get a salary from the government during this time while staying with children at home.
- Harmful ads.
The ads of alcohol and cigarettes should be banned as they advocate the unhealthy way of life.
- Beauty contests.
Beauty contests do not have any value for the society and should be eliminated from the lives of civilized societies.
- Plants in the developing countries.
- Plato and Socrates.
While the two Greek philosophers had their differences in understanding the world around us, they both were the founders of Western philosophy and made a huge impact on philosophy as we know it today.
- Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin.
The similarities between the two dictators are striking and they need a thorough investigation to understand the specific reasons for their horrid behavior.
- Judaism and Christianity.
Although they bear some similarities, the differences between Judaism and Christianity are remarkable and cause massive disputes until today.
- Online and on-campus studies.
While online classes provide students with more flexibility, they require more organizational and time-management skills to succeed at studies.
- Darwin and Lamarck
Although Darwin and Lamarck had similar views on the idea of species evolving over time, they had reached to different results in terms of the acquired traits inheritability.
- Hobbes and Locke
While Hobbes and Locke both had a major impact on the political philosophy, their views on the origin of moral principles of the right and wrong a man has.
- TV series and full-length film
The quality of modern TV series has increased immensely and sometimes matches the one of a full-length film, even though the two forms have some dramatic differences.
- Claude Monet and Pierre Auguste Renoir
Although the two painters had a close working relationship, they used different approaches to communicating their inner understanding of the world’s beauty.
- eBooks and paper books
While both eBooks and paper books have the same goal, the experience they bring to a reader is different and leads to several major distinctions between the two.
- Google and Facebook
Although Google and Facebook are designed for different purposes, they have multiple similarities of influencing people’s perceptions.
- Plato and Socrates.
Gambling addiction can be caused by several factors – impulse control disorder, genetics, past trauma syndrome- each having its particular impact on the behavior.
The success of any tennis player depends on his physical, mental, and emotional skills.
- Being a popular writer.
There is no unified success formula for authors to become successful but there are 5 main factors that can influence the writing career.
- Missions to the Moon.
The main reason for stopping further missions to the moon are the high cost and focus on more strategically important expenditures.
- How to survive on an island after a shipwreck.
There is a list of things one can do to prepare for a shipwreck and survive on an island before getting rescued that includes some physical training and thorough strategy.
- Random shootings.
The reasons behind the increasing number of random shootings in the U.S. are the growing fear of population and feeling of vulnerability.
Children diagnosed with autism need their parents to take a special approach to upbringing which includes a particular schedule of activities to avoid stress.
- Creative Professions.
The popularity of creative professions in the 21st century can be explained by the possibility of making robots do the hard routine tasks.
To minimize a major damage caused by a hurricane, every household needs to take thorough preventive measures.
- Caste system in India.
The phenomenon of a caste system in India was introduced as a mean of taking the local populations under control.
- Diversification in business is one of the most effective ways of assuring its success as it lets you have an alternative service or product to focus on during a critical situation.
- The symptoms of most of the eating disorders appear due to the stressful way of life.
- Creating a positive environment at a workplace increases employees’ motivation and reduces days of sick leave.
- Sharing responsibilities in the workplace between the members of one team project increases productivity by X% and helps people feel involved in the process.
- The lack of effective communication between colleagues and subordinates can lead to the decrease of productivity.
- The urge of changing workplaces and professions in the 21st century has the main reason of overall dissatisfaction with life. The feeling of uselessness and depression makes millennials search for a better place to work and live.
- Skills and knowledge do not matter for a top manager as long as they do not have a strong personality and leadership skills.
- The individual approach to every employee of New Balance corporation is an example of building a positive brand image without investing too much money in PR.
- Translation fails multinational companies make have a serious impact on the sales revenue.
- The case of IKEA demonstrates how good PR and social practices can turn society’s attention from the weaknesses of the company and make them its strengths.
- Long Walk to Freedom by Nelson Mandela is a marvelous example of inspirational writing that shows how it is possible to fight for civil rights on the streets and behind the prison bars.
- Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald shows us all the drastic consequences of having an illusion of a better life and making it the sense of one’s life.
- Pride and Prejudice was a revolutionary novel depicting a woman as a self-sufficient human being and not just a supplement to a man.
- The idea of the struggle against growing up plays the central role in The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger.
- In Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, we see that wealth and social class are secondary to loyalty and affection.
- The Odyssey is an epic masterpiece that teaches us that any life journey is filled up with a great number of obstacles and the outcome depends on how good we can cope with them.
- Through Goethe’s Faust, we can understand the real value of life and the significance of all the decisions we make as some of them may lead us to dramatic results.
- The central point Lord of the Flies makes us think about is the constant conflict between personal barbarism and the rigid rules of society.
- In the heart aching novel Of Mice and Men, we see the upsetting nature of human life as the sense of loneliness becomes dominant in all main characters.
- In The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoyevsky paints a picture of faith and doubt conflict and the unbearable burden of free will can change one’s life dramatically.
- There should be no controversy in terms of a gay character appearing in a Disney movie – Beauty and the Beast- in 2017 as the norms of our society has changed a lot.
- Donald Trump’s illogical and offensive behavior can be just a distraction from the world’s bigger political issues so that there would be no panic amongst the people.
- The phenomenon of higher education will be replaced by online courses and seminars in the nearest future as it is a more effective approach.
- Despite the protests, women’s objectification remains to be one of the central problems of perception of female beauty.
- Elon Musk’s ideas can help Australia and other countries to fight the energy problems and will be the future for the technological development as they are feasible and affordable.
- The government should stop supporting space missions trying to find extraterrestrial life due to the time factor. Unless we build a time machine, the time barrier will not let us find other forms of life elsewhere in the Universe.
- There should be more severe punishment for the sex offenders to reduce the cases of violence. The capital punishment is the most effective option in fighting these crimes.
- Parents should pay more attention to the time their children spend online because they need to know the difference between the real and virtual world from the early age.
- The biggest thing one can thieve from someone is no longer material but ephemeral – personal information. Because of the constant hackers attacks, it’s become impossible to feel safe.
- If the universities with a long history will not make the necessary adaptations to the modern educational system, the online education will take over the majority of world countries.
- The human factor is the reason of multiple aircraft extreme situations as only a few pilots are able to take fast and logical decisions under stress.
- The stereotype of a woman’s place being at home upbringing children starts to disappear, the gap between the salaries between two genders remains to be dramatic.
- Clothing is still the best way of introducing yourself to a person without saying anything.
- The type of a teachers’ salary that depends on the results of his work and not on the experience they have is becoming more and more popular.
- The concept of family is often the central topic in many of the world’s literature masterpieces.
- The effects of global warming become more visible with every year and can lead to the distinction of species.
- The sanctions upon the Russian Federation do not prove to be effective even a year from their initiation.
- The idea of degradation can be clearly seen in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “The Great Gatsby”.
- Homeopathy is nothing more than a placebo effect for a person.
- With the development of the digital era, the advertisers move their focus to online ads ignoring the effects of outdoor advertising.